winter windmills
What we do

Climate change poses grave risks to humanity and the planet, and consumption of fossil fuels is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. We quantify the impacts of climate change and inform strategies to reduce those impacts. We analyze how to use economic incentives to increase energy efficiency and substitute towards lower carbon and renewable fuels. Finally, we study the design and effects of policies to achieve sustainable mitigation of carbon emissions. 

Knowledge Base Code: EE

Climate & Energy Mini-talks

Machine learning can increase the impact of energy efficiency programs - presented by Erica Myers (2021)

Economic and environmental costs and benefits of biofuels - presented by Madhu Khanna

Fracking: Myths and truths - presented by Yilan Xu

agvolts
Collaboration | Sustainably Colocating Agricultural and Photovoltaic Electricity Systems

People: Madhu Khanna

Funding: United States Department of Agriculture 

This project aims to optimize design for “agrivoltaic” systems — fields with both crops and solar panels — that will maintain crop production, produce renewable energy, and increase farm profitability. The $10 million, four-year project, funded through the USDA’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Sustainable Agriculture Systems program with the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign as the lead institution, will study agrivoltaics in a variety of land types and climate scenarios (Illinois, Colorado, Arizona)

Research Output

Title Publication Authors Year Published Category Method Status
The spatiotemporal pattern of surface ozone and its impact on agricultural productivity in China PNAS Nexus Madhu Khanna, Xiaoguang Chen, Jing Gao, Luoye Chen, Binlei Gong, Maximilian Auffhammer 2024 EE N/A
Climate vs Energy Security: Quantifying the Trade-offs of BECCS Deployment and Overcoming Opportunity Costs on Set-Aside Land Environmental Science & Technology Madhu Khanna, Elena Blanc-Betes, Nuria Gomez-Casanovas, Melannie D Hartman, Tara W Hudiburg, William J Parton, Evan H DeLucia 2023 EE N/A (PR) Peer Reviewed
Knowns, uncertainties, and challenges in agrivoltaics to sustainably intensify energy and food production Cell Reports Physical Science Madhu Khanna, Nuria Gomez-Casanovas, Paul Mwebaze, Bruce Branham, Alson Time, Evan H DeLucia, Carl J Bernacchi, Alan K Knapp, Muhammad J Hoque, Xuzhi Du, Elena Blanc-Betes, Greg A Barron-Gafford, Bin Peng, Kaiyu Guan, Jordan Macknick, Ruiqing Miao, Nenad Miljkovic 2023 EE N/A (PR) Peer Reviewed
Land use effects of biofuel production in the US Environmental Research Communications Madhu Khanna, Weiwei Wang 2023 EE N/A (PR) Peer Reviewed
Maize farmers acquire early maturity seed across production environments CGIAR Hope Michelson, Pieter Rutsaert, Jason A Donovan, Hanna S Willwerth, Colleta Nabwile, John Muthee 2023 FA, EE N/A (PR) Peer Reviewed
Responsiveness of miscanthus and switchgrass yields to stand age and nitrogen fertilization: A meta-regression analysis GCB-Energy Bijay P. Sharma, B.P., Zhang, N., Lee, D., Heaton, E., Delucia, E.H., Sacks, E.J., Kantola, I.B., Boersma, N.N., Long, S.P., Voigt, T.B., & Khanna, M. 2022 FA, EE (OM) Other (PR) Peer Reviewed
An agent-based modeling tool supporting bioenergy and bio-product community communication regarding cellulosic bioeconomy development Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Yang, P., Cai, X., Hu, X., Zhao, Q., Lee, Y., Khanna, M... 2022 EE (PD) Policy Design, (SM) System Modeling (PR) Peer Reviewed
Does unconventional energy extraction generate more wastewater? A lifetime perspective Ecological Economics Xu, M., Xu, Y., Khanna, M. 2022 LW, EE (IE) Impact Evaluation (PR) Peer Reviewed
Are renewable energy policies effective to promote technological change? The role of induced technological risk Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Ye, F., Paulson, N., & Khanna, M.
2022 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation, (PD) Policy Design (PR) Peer Reviewed
WTP for post-flood buyout commitment Land Economcis Ando, A.W., & Reeser, C. 2022 EE (VA) Valuation (PR) Peer Reviewed
Redefining marginal land for bioenergy crop production GCB Bioenergy Khanna, K., Chen, L., Basso, B., Cai, X., Field, J.L., Guan, K., Jiang, C., Lark, T.J., Richard, T.L., Spawn‐Lee, S.A., Yang, P., & Zipp, K.Y. 2021 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation (PR) Peer Reviewed
The economic and environmental costs and benefits of the renewable fuel standard Environmental Research Letters Chen, L., Debnath, D., Zhong, J., Ferin, K., VanLoocke, A., & Khanna, M. 2021 EE (SM) System Modeling (PR) Peer Reviewed
Repeal of the clean power plan: Social cost and distributional implications American Journal of Agricultural Economics Khanna, M., Chen, X., Wang, W., & Oliver, A. 2021 EE (SM) System Modeling
Assessing the returns to land and greenhouse gas savings from producing energy crops on conservation reserve program land Environmental Science & Technology Chen, L., Blanc-Betes, E., Hudiburg, T.W., Hellerstein, D., Wallander, S., DeLucia, E.H., & Khanna, M. 2021 EE (SM) System Modeling
Lessons learned from US experience with biofuels: Comparing the hype with the evidence Review of Environmental Economics and Policy Khanna, M., Rajagopal, D., & Zilberman, D. 2021 EE (OM) Other
The demand for mobility: Evidence from an experiment with Uber riders IZA Discussion Paper Christensen, P., & Osman, A. 2021 EE, SC (FE) Field Experiment
Economic viability and carbon footprint of switchgrass for cellulosic biofuels: Insights from a spatial multi‐feedstock procurement landscape analysis GCB Bioenergy Sesmero, J.P., Trull, N.U, & Gramig, B.M 2021 EE (SM) System Modeling, (OM) Other
Adoption of perennial energy crops in the US Midwest: Causal and heterogeneous determinants Biomass and Bioenergy Yang, P., Cai, X., Leibensperger, C., & Khanna, M. 2021 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation (PR) Peer Reviewed
Housing discrimination and the toxics exposure gap in the United States: Evidence from the rental market Review of Economics and Statistics Christensen, P., Sarmiento-Barbieri, I., & Timmins, C. 2020 EE, SC (OM) Other
Potential for large-scale CO2 removal via enhanced rock weathering with croplands Nature Beerling, D.J., Kantzas, E.P., Lomas, M.R., Wade, P., Eufrasio, R.M., Renforth, P., Sarkar, B., Andrews, M.G., James, R.H., Pearce, C.R., Mercure, J.F., Pollitt, H., Holden, P.B., Edwards, N.R., Khanna, M., Koh, L., Quegan, S., Pidgeon, N.F., Janssens, I.A., Hansen, J., & Banwart, S.A. 2020 EE (SM) System Modeling
Do unconventional oil and gas wells generate more wastewater? A lifespan perspective SSRN Working Paper Xu, M., Xu, Y., & Khanna, M. 2020 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Fraccidents: The impact of fracking on road traffic deaths Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Xu, M., & Xu, Y. 2020 EE, O (IE) Impact Evaluation
Social comparison nudges without monetary incentives: Evidence from home energy reports Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Myers, E. & Souza, M.
2020 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Assessing the additional carbon savings with biofuel Bioenergy Research Khanna, M., Wang, W. & Wang, M. 2020 EE (SM) System Modeling
Decomposing the wedge between projected and realized savings in energy efficiency programs E2e Working Paper Christensen, P., Francisco, P., Myers, E., & Souza, M. 2020 EE, SC (IE) Impact Evaluation
COVID‐19: A cloud with a silver lining for renewable energy? Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy Khanna, M. 2020 EE (OM) Other
Decomposing the wedge between projected and realized savings in energy efficiency programs E2e Working Paper Christensen, P., Francisco, P., Myers, E., & Souza, M. (2020). 2020 EE, SC (IE) Impact Evaluation
Repeal of the Clean Power Plan: Social Cost And Distributional Implications American Journal of Agricultural Economics X. chen, W. Wang and A. Oliver 2020 EE (SM) System Modeling
Heterogeneous (mis-) perceptions of energy costs: Implications for measurement and policy design National Bureau of Economic Research Houde, S., & Myers, E.
2019 EE (PD) Policy Design, (VA) Valuation
The distributional effects of building energy codes Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists Bruegge, C., Deryugina, T., & Myers, E.
2019 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Are home buyers inattentive? Evidence from capitalization of energy costs American Economic Journal: Economic Policy Myers, E. 
2019 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Effect of wind turbines on bird abundance: A national scale analysis based on fixed effects models Energy Policy Miao, R., Ghosh, P. N., Khanna, M., Wang, W., & Rong, J.
2019 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Multi-objective optimization for sustainable renewable jet fuel production: A case study of corn stover based supply chain system in Midwestern U.S. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews Huang, E., Zhang, X., Rodriguez, L., Khanna, M., de jong, S., Ting, K.C., Ying, Y.
2019 EE (SM) System Modeling
Adopting energy crops: Does farmers' attitude toward loss matter? Agricultural Economics Anand, M., Miao, R. & Khanna, M. 2019 FA, EE (PD) Policy Design, (SM) System Modeling
Are consumers attentive to local energy costs? Evidence from the appliance market National Bureau of Economic Research Houde, S., & Myers, E.
2019 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Harnessing advances in agricultural technologies to optimize resource utilization in the food-energy-water nexus Annual Review of Resource Economics Miao, R. and M. Khanna 2019 FA, EE (OM) Other
Effects of mandatory energy efficiency disclosure in housing markets National Bureau of Economic Research Myers, E., Puller, S. L., & West, J. D.
2019 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Is wood pellet-based electricity less carbon-intensive than coal-based electricity? It depends on perspectives, baselines, feedstocks, and forest management practices Environmental Research Letters Dwivedi, P., M. Khanna and M. Fuller 2019 EE (SM) System Modeling
Effects of mandatory energy efficiency disclosure in housing markets National Bureau of Economic Research 2019 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Effect of corn ethanol production on conservation reserve program acres in the US Applied Energy Chen, X., & Khanna, M.
2018 LW, EE (SM) System Modeling
Effects of ethanol plant proximity and crop prices on land-use change in the United States American Journal of Agricultural Economics Li, Y., Miao, R., & Khanna, M.
2018 FA, EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Multicriterion optimal electric drive vehicle selection based on lifecycle emission and lifecycle cost Energy Economics Ahmadi, P., Cai, X.M., & Khanna, M.
2018 EE (SM) System Modeling
Spatial distribution of welfare costs of renewable portfolio standards in the United States electricity sector Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences Oliver, A.C. , & Khanna, M.
2018 EE (SM) System Modeling
Asymmetric information is residential rental markets: Implications for the energy efficiency gap E2e Working Paper Myers, E. 2018 EE, SC (IE) Impact Evaluation
The social inefficiency of regulating indirect land use change due to biofuels Nature Communications Khanna, M., Wang, W., Hudiburg, T., & DeLucia, E.
2017 EE (SM) System Modeling
Environmental hazards and mortgage credit risk: Evidence from Texas pipeline incidents Real Estate Economics Xu, M., & Xu, Y. 2017 EE, O (IE) Impact Evaluation
What is the cost of a renewable energy-based approach to greenhouse gas mitigation? Land Economics Oliver, A.C., & Khanna, M.
2017 EE (SM) System Modeling
Bioenergy economics and policy in US and Brazil: Effects on land use and greenhouse gas emissions Handbook of Bioenergy Economics and Policy (Volume II) Khanna, M., & Zilberman, D.
2017 LW, EE (OM) Other
Costs of Meeting a Cellulosic biofuel mandate with perennial energy crops: Implications for policy Energy Economics Miao, R., & Khanna, M.
2017 FA, EE (SM) System Modeling
Demand for Biomass to meet renewable energy targets in the US: Implications for land use Global Change Biology Bioenergy Oliver, A.C., & Khanna, M.
2017 EE (SM) System Modeling
Effectiveness of the biomass crop assistance program: Roles of behavioral factors, credit constraint, and program design Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy Miao, R., & Khanna, M.
2017 FA, EE (SM) System Modeling
Handbook of Bioenergy Economics and Policy Handbook of Bioenergy Economics and Policy (Volume II) Khanna, M., & Zilberman, D.
2017 EE (OM) Other
Is forest bioenergy carbon neutral or worse than coal? Implications of carbon accounting methods International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics Khanna, M., Dwivedi, P., & Abt, R.
2017 EE (OM) Other
Motivations to grow energy crops: The role of crop and contract attributes Agricultural Economics Khanna, M., Louviere, J. J, & Yang, X.
2017 EE (VA) Valuation
Nexus between food, energy and ecosystem services in the Mississippi River basin: Policy implications and challenges Choices Khanna, M.
2017 FA, EE (OM) Other
Efficacy of carbon and bioenergy markets in mitigating carbon emissions on reforested lands: A case study from southern United States Forest Policy and Economics Dwivedi, P., Khanna, M., Sharma, A., & Susaeta, A.
2016 EE (SM) System Modeling
Impacts of a 32 billion gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US Nature Energy Hudiburg, T.W., Wang, W., Khanna, M., Long, S. P., Dwivedi, P., Parton, W. J., Hartmann, M., & DeLucia, E.H.
2016 EE (SM) System Modeling
Who pays and who gains from fuel policies in Brazil? Energy Economics Khanna, M., Nunez, H., & Zilberman, D.
2016 EE (SM) System Modeling
Trade-facilitated technology spillovers in energy productivity convergence processes across EU countries Energy Economics Wan, J., Baylis, K., & Mulder, P.
2015 EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Carbon savings with transatlantic trade in pellets: Accounting for market-driven effects Environmental Research Letters Wang, W., Dwivedi, P. Abt, R., & Khanna, M.
2015 EE (SM) System Modeling
Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol Environmental Science and Technology Dwividi, P., Wang, W., Hudiburg, T., Jaiswal, D., Parton, W., Long, S., DeLucia, E., & Khanna, M.
2015 EE (SM) System Modeling
Impacts of management practices on bioenergy feedstock yield and economic feasibility on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Grasslands GCB Bioenergy Anderson, E.K., Aberle, E., Chen, C., Egenolf, J., Harmonmey, K., Kakani, G., Kallenbach, R.L., Khanna, M., Wang, W., & Lee, D.K.
2015 LW, EE (IE) Impact Evaluation
Managing multiple mandates: A system of systems model to analyze strategies for producing cellulosic ethanol and reducing riverine nitrate loads in the upper Mississippi River basin Environmental Science and Technology Housh, M., Yaeger, M., Cai, X., McIsaac, G., Khanna, M., Sivapalan, M., Ouyang, Y., Al-Qadi, I., & Jain, A. 2015 EE (SM) System Modeling
Mix of first and second generation biofuels to meet multiple environmental objectives: Implications for policy at a watershed scale Water Policy Economics Housh, M., Khanna, M., & Cai, X.
2015 EE (SM) System Modeling
Renewable energy policies for eco-innovation Managing Emerging Technologies for Socio-Economic Impact Dombrovski, R. (eds) Assimakopoulos, D., Oshri, I., & Pandza, K. 2015 EE, SC (PD) Policy Design
Optimal mix of vertical integration and contracting for energy crops effect of risk preferences and land quality Applied Economic Policy and Perspectives Yang, X., Paulson, N. D., & Khanna, M.
2015 FA, EE (SM) System Modeling
Effectiveness of financial and fiscal instruments for promoting sustainable renewable energy technologies Economic and Business Review 2015 EE, SC (IE) Impact Evaluation, (PD) Policy Design